Archive for the ‘Justice’ category

Equal Justice

March 12th, 2012

There were two battles against the Japanese for the Philippines during World War II. We lost one and won the other. Though the War officially ended when the Japanese surrendered in 1945, the United States Congress decided it was too costly to recognize the Filipino soldiers’ contributions to the war effort by passing a law denying them the same benefits as all other American military personnel. Sixteen million Americans served in World War II, and Congress thought it would cost too much money to include Filipino soldiers among those eligible for benefits of the G.I. Bill. Money should not even have been a consideration. Though Congress has provided limited legislation admitting its dishonorable act, this shameful injustice is still in effect after nearly 65 years. House of Representative Bill #491, the Equity Act of 2001 would have overturned the Recession Act of 1946 which denied Filipino soldiers the benefits received by all other Americans who served in the military forces in World War II.

Democrat and Republican representatives alike, running for re-election in 2002, publicly announced their support of this legislation. Obviously, public announcements of support by incumbents were idle promises. American voters, which include increasing numbers of Filipino/Americans, have influenced limited but inadequate congressional legislation that has occurred. Congress must overturn the Recession Act, thereby providing nothing less than full restitution to Filipino veterans. What are some of the arguments against overturning the Congressional Act of 1946, signed into law by President Harry Truman?

First, the Philippines was a colonial possession left over from the Spanish-American War of 1898. Secondly, Filipinos were not American citizens as were the soldiers from Pennsylvania, Virginia, Massachusetts or Kentucky. Let’s examine the relationship between the Philippines and the United States for the last 112-113 years and take a look at these arguments. By federal law, the Philippines was a commonwealth of the United States. It came into legal existence as such because of the Tydings-McDuffie Bill, passed by the United States Congress and signed into law by President Franklin Roosevelt in 1934 which granted absolute and complete independence to the Philippines by 1944 (actually 1946 due to Japanese occupation), and it provided for an interim commonwealth supervised by the United States, with a Philippine president elected by national vote, and a constitution. A constitution was adopted in February 1935, approved by the United States President and ratified by a plebiscite of the Philippine people in May 1935 with Manuel Quezon as President. » Read more: Equal Justice

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Intro To Criminal Justice Courses Teaches Students About Crime History And Trends

March 12th, 2012

What if, after spending much of your life in Key West, Fla., you stripped down to your birthday suit at a bar in Toledo, Oh.? In Key West, after all, clothing in the saloons can be optional. What’s more, dress code signs aren’t always all that specific.

An Introduction to Criminal Justice course typically explains the definition of crimes and criminals. Students in Introduction to Criminal Justice often learn about how laws in different places have changed throughout history. They might also come to understand how people in England once believed that criminals maintained a crime “gene” and how experts in the United States now suggest a variety of aspects can cause someone to commit crimes – or prevent them from doing so.

Fast forward to the future, as many Introduction to Criminal Justice courses might do. A 2006 National Institute of Justice Journal article suggests that technology, changing demographics and terrorism are to affect criminal justice systems worldwide into 2040. A more global society also is expected to have an effect, according to the National Institute of Justice Journal article. » Read more: Intro To Criminal Justice Courses Teaches Students About Crime History And Trends

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